Socio-economic determinants of Chronic Kidney Diseases of uncertain aetiology (CKDu)



– Presents the background and context of CKDu in Sri Lanka and globally. Highlights that CKDu is increasing in Uva Province but socio-economic risk factors are unknown.

– Concisely states the study objectives to identify socio-economic risk factors for CKDu in Uva Province using statistical models.


– Appropriate cross-sectional study design with a stratified random sampling of 229 farmers, including CKDu patients.

– Clearly defines the dependent variable as CKDu status and 9 independent variables representing socio-economic factors based on past research and hypotheses.

– Uses logistic regression model and odds ratios to relate the variables and identify significant risk factors. Analysis methods are suitable for the study design and objectives.


– Provides descriptive statistics to present sample characteristics across the variables.

– Correlation analysis shows some weak associations between variables as expected.

The logistic regression model identifies 6 significant socio-economic risk factors for CKDu, with adjusted odds ratios quantifying the risk presented by each factor.

– Consumption of contaminated water and foods, age, gender, and education are key risk factors. Aligns with some previous research on CKDu.


– Interprets the 6 risk factors identified by the model about past CKDu research in Sri Lanka and beyond.

– Compares the direction and magnitude of risks in the context of the literature.

– Discusses theories on causes like agrochemicals and drinking water contamination. Links findings to government disease control.


– Concisely summarizes the main statistically significant socio-economic risk factors influencing CKDu prevalence.

– Recommends interventions for reducing CKDu impacts based on findings.

Overall, the study design, analyses, results presentation and discussion follow appropriate scientific methodology and principles. The findings support the evidence based on CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka.


Original article  –


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